Corruption Perceptions Index 2020

“Corruption in Pandemic Response and Law Enforcement drags Nigeria’s corruption perception further down”

EMBARGOED UNTIL 6:00 CET, 28th of January, 2021.

28th of January, 2021

In Abuja: The 2020 Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) released globally by Transparency International (TI) today shows that Nigeria yet again, records a declinein the CPI in 2020.

Published exclusively in Nigeria by the Civil Society Legislative Advocacy Centre (CISLAC), the National Chapter of TI, the index reveals that Nigeria scored 25 out of 100 points in the 2020 CPI, falling back by one point compared to last year. In the country comparison for this year, Nigeria ranks 149 out of 179 countries -three places down compared to 2019 results.

The CPI aggregates data from 8 (eight) different sources that provide perceptions by Nigeria’s business community and country experts on the level of corruption in the public sector. While the index does not show specific incidences of corruption, it is an indication of the perception of the Nigerian public about the state of corruption in the country. The index is completely impartial, objective and globally well respected.  

This result is coming at the heels of numerous challenges facing the country ranging from the Covid-19 pandemic, insecurity, high unemployment and a sharp increase in government borrowing amongst others.

While releasing its report on “Rising to the Challenge: Nigeria’s COVID Response” in December, 2020 the World Bank warned that “In the next three years, an average Nigerian could see a reversal of decades of economic growth and the country could enter its deepest recession since the 1980s. According to the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) which is an independent think tank organization, Nigeria witnessed a total of 2,860 kidnappings in 2020 which was up from 1,386 in 2019. The picture is further gloomy when taking into consideration the Unemployment Data for the second quarter of 2020 released by the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS). This survey by the NBS which is the government’s statistical agency shows that one in two Nigerian is either unemployed (27.1%) or underemployed (28.6%). Each of these challenges can be linked to corruption and mismanagement of public resources, which further exacerbates the economic and health impact of the terrible global pandemic.

Nigeria’s CPI score is just another reminder of the need for a fast, transparent, and robust response to the challenges posed by corruption to Nigeria. It is worrying that despite the numerous efforts by state actors on the war against corruption, Nigeria is still perceived by citizens and members of the international community as being corrupt. CISLAC/TI is forced to ask why the results do not commensurate with the efforts?

Despite the fact that CISLAC and Nigerian partners do not collect the CPI data as this is done by independent, reputable organisations, we and other well-meaning citizens have experienced push-back from various governments and their supporters when the CPI results and other indices turn unfavourable. Some of these pushbacks include labelling us “unpatriotic citizens”. In some instances, physical attacks were experienced.

Going forward, we use this medium to call on the government and her supporters to examine the drivers behind Nigeria’s deteriorating anti-corruption image and consider actions, which will tackle systemic corruption. We guarantee that the perception will improve in the short      term. As law abiding citizens, CISLAC/TI and other partner organizations are willing to work with state and non-state actors on how to collectively improve Nigeria’s fight against corruption as we have always done in the past.

CISLAC/TI and partners suspect a list of key weaknesses to explain why Nigeria may not have improved in the fight against corruption. Although there is a various extent of the below-mentioned factors on the unfavourable ranking this year, we feel that these areas require immediate improvement for the sake of well-being of ordinary Nigerians:

Weakness 1: Absence of transparency in the COVID-19 pandemic response

With the COVID-19 pandemic out      of Nigeria’s responsibility, there has been a lack of transparency in the emergency response of the government. Coupled with the gap in coordination, the process has been fraught by incessant flouting of procurement guidelines, hoarding of relief materials and diversion of these materials which are then used as personal souvenirs presented to political party loyalists and close associates. We find it disturbing that in some cases, supplies donated by a group of well-meaning Nigerian business persons, corporate entities, development partners and others under the Coalition Against COVID-19 (CACOVID) were left inexplicably undistributed, and in some cases rotten, by the federal and state governments. While these occurrences are not specific to Nigeria, citizens are yet to see concrete action by the anti-graft agencies on these issues.

Weakness 2: Nepotism in the public service appointments and promotions

In the past year, we witnessed nepotism and favoritism in the appointment and promotion of some public officers. For example, all Nigerians remember the controversy which trailed the decision of the National Judicial Council (NJC) when at least 8 (eight) of the 33 judges recommended for appointment by the NJC were either children or relatives of current or retired Justices of the Supreme or Appeal Courts. The Nigerian Ministry of Foreign Affairs in itself is not an exception with allegations of individuals promoted on the basis of their relationship and other affiliations as against merit and other criteria stated in the rule books. Reports around the commercialization of employment into various institutions including admission into various tertiary educational institutions put the nation in bad light. The extortion for the acquisition of services like healthcare, passports renewal and obtaining of visas creates a negative perception of corruption in Nigeria.

Weakness 3: Lack of adequate anti-corruption legal frameworks and interference by politicians in the operation of law enforcement agencies.

CISLAC/TI is not oblivious of some successes recorded by the Nigerian government such as the Transparency portal managed and implemented by the Office of the Auditor General. These activities have the potential to bring corruption and wastefulness of the government agencies at all levels to the end. We fully support this initiative.

Important anti-corruption legislations such as the Companies and Allied Matters Act (CAMA, 2020) and the Police Act 2020 undeniably signal move in the right direction. However, more needs to be done to enact legislation and implement it.

The repeated failure to enact the Proceeds of Crime Act as a legal framework for the management and utilization of recovered assets in Nigeria which is one of the key pillars of this administration’s anti-corruption strategy is inexplicable!      There is still a lack of accountability in some quarters of government, especially in terms of beneficial owners of lucrative government contracts. Out of millions of corrupt transactions experienced annually, only a few  hundreds of offenders are investigated, let alone convicted on corruption charges.

The current scenario where different institutions like the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), Independent Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Commission (ICPC), Code of Conduct Bureau, National Drug Law Enforcement Agency the Nigerian Police and other agencies overlap with mandates and lack synergy is not sustainable and have proven to be a leeway to corruption. The infighting and politicizing of the anti-corruption agenda may be evident by the way of suspending the Acting Chairman of the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) Mr. Ibrahim Magu. The accusation that he failed to give a proper account of assets recovered by his agency is questionable provided no clear legal and policy asset recovery framework exists. CISLAC/TI will like to point out that the theatric handling of the suspension of Mr. Magu could have been done better and this greatly contributes to the negative image of Nigeria’s     anti-corruption campaign. The absence of a      Whistle Blower Protection Legislation leaves Nigerian anti-corruption agencies deprived of key insider intelligence without which an anti-corruption      crusade is a mission impossible.

Weakness 4: Prevalence of bribery and extortion in the Nigerian Police

The year 2020 witnessed the #EndSARS protests which saw young people across the nation demanding an end to police brutality and corruption. A factor that led to this protest was      widespread bribery and extortion by law enforcement officials especially the police. The first and second national corruption surveys conducted by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) in partnership with the government’s National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) and released in 2017 and 2019 both showed the Nigerian Police is the institution with the highest prevalence of bribery amongst the institutions measured. While there have been commendable efforts by the Police Complaints Response Unit (CRU) in reducing police abuses, there is a need to scale up the efforts of the unit to meet the demands of citizens as contained in the Police Act 2020.

Weakness 5: Security sector corruption

From violent extremism and insurgency to piracy, kidnapping for ransom, attacks on oil infrastructure, drug trafficking, and organized crime, Nigeria faces a host of complex security challenges. These threats typically involve irregular forces and are largely societally based. They are most prevalent and persistent in marginalized areas where communities feel high levels of distrust toward the government—often built up over many years. At their root, these security challenges are symptoms of larger failures in governance.

As many of Nigeria’s security threats are domestic in nature, the Nigeria Police Force (NPF) is often the primary security interface with the public. However, low levels of public trust in the police inhibit the cooperation needed to be effective against these societally based threats.

Nigeria’s security system is also perceived to be politicized. Leaders are often appointed based on their political allegiances rather than on their experience or capabilities in law enforcement. As a result, the quality of leadership at the helm of affairs suffers. Appointees under such circumstances feel loyalty to their political patron rather than to their institutions or citizens. How and to whom the law is applied is not consistent. Norms of professionalism and ethics are weakened.

The problem of non-meritocratic leadership is exacerbated by a command-and-control structure that is opaque, centralized, and often chaotic. security leaders who have not earned their position lose the respect of their colleagues, who are then more likely to abandon a unit when facing an armed threat. Insufficient understanding or commitment to effectiveness among a force’s leadership often results in the neglect of training. Problems of police engagement with communities are thus perpetuated.

The continuous opaqueness in the utilization of security votes contributes to corruption perception in the country and this process must be reformed especially when we have security agencies living and working in very poor conditions. Multiple reports of police officers protesting non-payment of allowances for election duties are now seen. The result of this is the widespread kidnappings, banditry and terrorism ravaging different parts of the country.

Having itemized the key weaknesses that resulted in Nigeria’s decline of the CPI 2020, members of CISLAC/TI and other civil society organisations of like minds understand that as patriotic citizens it is our duty to criticize constructively. To this effect, we will like to advice the government to implement these recommendations:

  1. Transparency in the utilization of covid-19 relief funds by state and non-state actors must be ensured. The National Assembly and relevant anti-graft agencies must follow up cases of corruption in the covid-19 response process and reports from the Auditor General’s office. The office of the Auditor General should also be strengthened to carry out an audit      of the COVID-19 relief process.
  2. Public servants should be appointed, appraised and promoted on merit to reduce the level of nepotism and favouritism. Lop-sidedness in appointments increases perception of corruption of the due process.
  3. The National Assembly should speed up the deliberation and passage of relevant anti-corruption related laws or amendments to strengthen the anti-corruption efforts in the interest of Nigerians. The presidency should assent to these laws once they are passed while taking into consideration the      best interest of citizens.
  4. The government should commit to police reform by ensuring the full implementation of the Police Act 2020, support the ongoing judicial panels of enquiries     and prioritize the welfare of the personnel of the Nigerian Police.
  5. The government should put in place a transparent monitoring framework for Security votes. The government should also ensure that these funds are channelled to security and defence agencies.
  6. The Federal Government should urgently constitute the National Council on Public Procurement (NCPP) to actively coordinate the activities of the Bureau of Public Procurement and give full effect to the Public Procurement Act 2007.
  7. The government must ensure democratic and free civic space for engagement with citizenry and the media.
  8. We call on revenue generating agencies like the Federal Inland Revenue Service, the National Ports Authority and the Nigerian Customs Service to ensure that they improve efforts to curb extortion and bribery among their officials.
  9. There is also a need to operationalize the anti-corruption strategy to ensure that anti-corruption efforts are not concentrated at the federal level alone. Also other arms of government need to be involved in the fight against corruption. It shouldn’t be left alone to the executive alone.

Ladies and gentlemen of the press, you will agree with us that it would be of immense benefit to public institutions, the government and Nigerian citizens if these recommendations are implemented.

God Bless the Federal Republic of Nigeria!


The Civil Society Legislative Advocacy Centre (CISLAC)/ Transparency International Nigeria.

The Centre for Democracy and Development (CDD)



Auwal Ibrahim Musa (Rafsanjani)

Executive Director CISLAC

16 P.O.W. Mafemi Crescent, Off Solomon Lar Way, Behind Chida Hotel, Utako District, Abuja. Nigeria

Phone: (234) 0803 384 4646






SB 384: Companies and Allied Matters Act 1990 CAP C20 LFN 2004 (Amendment) Bill, 2017. Sponsored by Sen. Ovie Omo-Agege


Bill type: Senate Bill

Sponsored by: Sen. Ovie Omo-Agege

Explanatory memorandum: The Bill seeks to amend laws of the Federation of Nigeria 2004 and for the establishment of state Corporate Affairs Commission for registration of business names.

First Reading: 24/11/2016

Second Reading: 01/03/2017

Committee Referred To: Trade and Investment

Consolidated with: Consolidated with SB 355

Third Reading: 15/05/2018

Bill Status: Passed (Awaiting Presidential Assent)


On Tuesday 15 May 2018, the Senate of the Federal Republic of Nigeria passed the Companies and Allied Matters Act, 1990 (CAP C20, LFN 2004) Repeal and Re-enactment Bill, 2018 (“the Bill”), following a recommendation of the Senate Committee on Trade and Investment (The Committee). The Bill consolidates the proposed amendments from two related bills: Companies and Allied Matters Act CAP C20 LFN 2004 (Amendment) Bill, 2016 and the Companies and Allied Matters Act CAP C20 LFN 2004 (Amendment) Bill, 2017.

The Bill has 860 sections which is an additional 247 sections to the Current CAMA with 613 sections and seeks to establish an efficient means of regulating businesses, minimize the compliance burden of small and medium enterprises (SMEs), improve transparency and accountability, enhance shareholder engagement and promote a friendly business climate in Nigeria.


  1. 8.3 of the Bill provides for e-incorporation to facilitate the automated reservation of business names which will result in a significant improvement in turnaround time for potential promoters of companies in Nigeria and improve the ease of registering new businesses. Other automated processes are provided for in Sections 176 and 177 which refer to electronic instruments for the transfer of shares. Section 182 also provides for a Certificate of transfer to include a certificate issued in electronic form.

By virtue of Section 18 (2) of the Bill, one person may form and incorporate a private company by complying with the requirements of the proposed CAMA in respect of private companies thus reducing entry barriers for SMEs. This provides a competitive Nigerian business regulatory environment that is consistent with other jurisdictions.

The Bill also seeks to discard Section 26 (5) of the CAMA which provides that “The memorandum of a company limited by guarantee shall not be registered without authority of the Attorney-General of the Federation”. This will materially reduce the timeline for the registration of companies limited by guarantee (LTD/GTEs).

S.120 of the Bill on provides for persons who hold nominal interest in a company on behalf of another, to disclose those beneficial interests.  Also any shareholder (other than the beneficial owner) who holds shares entitling him to 5% voting rights in company should provide particulars of the beneficial owner to the company within 7 days. The beneficial owner should also disclose whether persons interested in the same shares are parties to any agreement or arrangement relating to the exercise of any rights conferred by the holding of the shares. Upon this disclosure, the company is to, within 7 days, inscribe against the name of every member in the register of members the information received and at the filing of its next annual return, notify the Commission of that information. By implication if the company defaults, the company and every officer of the company shall be liable to such fines as the Commission may prescribe by regulation for every day during which the default continues.

  1. 131 to 133 of the Bill enables companies to reduce share capital without the need for a court order, while S.148 prohibits the issuance of irredeemable shares and S.175 expressly prohibits Bearer shares.

The Bill provides exemptions to small companies including the removal of mandatory requirement to hold Annual General Meetings –S. 238(1); not having to hold the AGMs in Nigeria and the option of holding them electronically- S.241 (2); reducing the regulatory burden of having a Company Secretary –S. 329 (1); removing the requirement for a company to have at least 2 directors and allows for single directorship for small companies S.272.

  1. 404 of the Bill prohibits improper influence on conduct of audit of the financial statements of that company for the purpose of rendering such financial statements misleading by imposing a penalty to be specified by the Commission in its regulations, thus enforcing transparency in auditing processes.

The Bill provides a redress mechanism through S. 843 which seeks the Establishment of the Administrative Proceedings Committee (“APC”). The main function of the APC is to provide the opportunity of being heard for persons alleged to have contravened the provisions of the proposed Act or regulations made thereunder; resolve disputes or grievances arising from the operations of this Act or its regulations; and impose administrative penalties for contravention of the provisions of this Act or its regulations in the settlement of matters before it.

The Bill makes provisions for Business Rescue Proceedings which is targeted at rehabilitating financially distressed companies. These provisions seek to create an effective insolvency regime in Nigeria and has a dual aim: to save viable businesses, and to ensure that non-viable businesses can quickly exit the market, allowing deployment of assets to more productive firms.


On beneficial ownership, the amendments are targeted to increase transparency and combat asset shielding and are particularly significant, since they may mandate the disclosure of beneficial interests in a company where such are held through nominal holders or in trust. The Bill by seeking the establishment of a BO register, conforms to the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) international standards, particularly Recommendations 24 and 25 which emphasize the need for countries to prioritize for redress risks associated with obscurity of ultimate beneficiaries of corporate entities; as well as fulfils the commitments of the President at the 2016 London Anti-Corruption Summit convened by the UK Government and the Open Government Partnership Initiative.

The Bill complements the key objective of the Presidential Enabling Business Environment Council in building an enabling business environment by attempting to address the extant difficulties faced by businesses (administrative bottlenecks, high compliance costs etc.) which will lead to a significant improvement in the country’s Ease of Doing Business rankings.

On the whole, the Bill promises to improve revenue mobilization by the government as business entities can now be more efficiently regulated.



In a bid to reduce compliance requirements for small companies, the provisions for exemption from independent statutory audits may create an avenue for unsavory practices particularly for companies that may have gap years in their financial history. Hopefully, the harmonized Bill will have safeguards in place to enable users of financial statements other than shareholders have access to relevant financial information of a company that apparently does not do business in a particular year[1].

With respect to financial assistance, The Bill included provisions permitting private companies to provide financial assistance for acquisition of its own shares upon meeting certain conditions.  These conditions include, non-reduction of net assets, or where reduced, such assistance should be financed out of distributable profits.  A special resolution of the shareholders and a declaration of the directors in a form to be prescribed by the CAC are also required to accompany such transaction. These provisions may be deemed aggressive and the harmonized version should include safeguards to ensure that minority shareholders and creditors are not shortchanged by aggressive structuring of transactions on the basis of the removal of this prohibition.  Most common law countries retain some kind of safety net in this respect, especially for private companies.



It is expected that the new Bill when enacted will ease the rigors of doing business in Nigeria thereby making investing in the country an attractive prospect to investors. This will have the effect of improving and strengthening the nation’s economy as the projected influx of new businesses will help it thrive and grow in bounds.

With the need to incorporate regulatory conditions which are modeled around international best practice, the Bill will indeed promote long-term investments and ensure that the Nigerian system of company law and corporate governance would be favorable to the emerging Nigeria.

Given its current status, the Bill should be assented to or rejected by the President, to allow its urgent re-introduction by the National Assembly. In the meantime, stand-alone frameworks like efforts by the Nigerian Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (NEITI) and the Corporate Affairs Commission to establish registers for Beneficial ownership information in the oil and gas industry and the corporate sector, respectively, will serve as stop-gap measures to provide temporary succor to our bleeding economy.

By: Muna Ugochukwu




CAMA, 2020: Corporate Accountability and Transparency

A Summary Review of the Companies and Allied Matters Act, 2020


While legitimate corporate businesses have an integral role in national development, the involvement of Politically Exposed Persons (PEPs) who conceal corruptly acquired wealth through the complex networks of companies deliberately created to hide their identities has further increased the risks they pose to non-fortified economies. In 2019, the former Executive Chairman of the Federal Inland Revenue Service, Mr Tunde Fowler, said that Nigeria loses about $15bn (N5.37tn at N358/dollar) to tax evasion annually.

It is to this end that the imperative to establish a Beneficial Ownership (BO) register as contextualized in its contemporary form by the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) which stresses the establishment of a publicly accessible central register for warehousing personal information of natural persons that own, control and benefit from corporate entities, was predicated.

The Nigerian government had expressed its commitment to this end at the London Anti-Corruption Summit in May 2016 to strengthen anti-corruption reforms, one of which was the Companies and Allied Matters Act (CAMA) Bill, which contained explicit provisions for the establishment and functioning of the Beneficial Ownership (BO) Registry.


The bill which had been signed by both legislative Houses of the 8th and 9th Assemblies, was finally granted assent by the President on Friday the 7th of August, 2020. The CAMA repeals and replaces the extant Companies and Allied Matters Act, 1990 and has been touted as the most significant business legislation in the last three decades, particularly as it introduces several corporate legal innovations aimed at enhancing ease of doing business in the country.

While the innovations to ease business have been reviewed quite exhaustively, the legislative document has not received its due credit on its key contributory role to corporate accountability and private sector governance, which it owes largely to the transparency clause requiring the disclosure of persons with significant control of companies in a register of beneficial owners. By extension, this provision which portends the efficient regulation of business entities, complements efforts towards greatly improving domestic resource revenue in its potential to address the curbing of illicit financial outflows, which costs the country around 17 billion US dollars ($17bn), annually to Nigerian and international companies operating within the Nigerian jurisdiction.

Prior to the Presidential assent, the issues around digitalization and funding of the register have been largely addressed by the CAC in conjunction with the OGP secretariat and the World Bank, through a multi-donor grant for the development of an electronic register and documentation and there are presently:

  • Ongoing upgrades of IT infrastructure to accommodate register with an in-house committee already set up to design a workflow.
  • Ongoing engagements with relevant stakeholders to enlighten them on the benefits of the disclosure regime in line with the OGP commitments.
  • Adoption of UK principles of disclosure, with the national threshold for disclosure set at 5% as opposed to the UK’s 25%.

Way forward

It is however worthy to note that this tool- the BO register, is not an end in itself but a means to an end as the law is not enough to guarantee compliance. To this end, three key endeavours are required, viz:


There needs to be inclusion by engaging key stakeholders and emphasizing gains and by providing ease of compliance. The integration process commenced two years ago by the Open Government Partnership in Nigeria, between the Corporate Affairs Commission (CAC) and Anti-corruption Agencies (ACAs), Bureau of Public Procurement (BPP), organized private sector (OPS) and other open contract and procurement-saddled institutions, somewhat guarantees the sustenance of the commitment. Also, while a large section of the organized private sector (OPS) is in support of this transparency and accountability drive, others have raised cogent concerns over information rights for public disclosure posing security concerns. This can however be addressed in process implementation by regulators (CAC) who have guaranteed secure accessibility to certain information.

Value re-orientation

The realization that both the government and the private sector must contribute their quota towards building Nigeria’s economy and drive development is now mainstream and progressive governments globally are designing policies and roadmaps to this end. It is necessary to note that the register will provide both checks and benefits to companies and the mentality that its establishment will benefit the country to the detriment of the OPS and multi-national enterprises (MNEs) should be eschewed. A true ecosystem of open governance must include open collaborative processes and it is imperative that even without a law, private sector operators like the OPS and CSOs should impose on their corporate governance structures, the principles, processes and values that make disclosure a default action and advocacy must be sustained for the paradigm shift for self-regulation by the OPS and CSOs to this effect.


With the establishment of the register, there is a new challenge as existing rules emphasize the need for accurate, reliable and up-to-date beneficial ownership information. According to a 2018 study on how well G20 and guest countries are implementing the G20 High Level Principles on Beneficial Ownership, no governments that collect beneficial ownership information, verify it[1]. However, a paper published by the Tax Justice Network (TJN) proposed a way of checking the validity of data provided: an information technology system combined with advanced analytics to identify red flags.

The verification process involves ensuring that people in the official register are who they say they are (authentication), that those persons have agreed to be involved in a legal entity (authorization), and that all the registered data is valid (for example, the address exists and the purpose of the company is accurate). It also involves checks after the legal entity is set up to ensure information is up-to-date and to identify potential red flags. It proposes a verification process that is fully automated information technology system with human supervision with access to relevant data, held by national and foreign authorities for cross-checking and advanced analysis.

The process could be managed by the beneficial ownership or company register, or another public body that has experience with data analytics, such as financial intelligence units or tax authorities and the responsible body needs to be adequately resourced and empowered to conduct such checks.

Adapted from “Beneficial ownership verification: ensuring the truthfulness and accuracy of registered ownership information”, Tax Justice Network and that all the registered data is valid (for example, the address exists and the purpose of the company is accurate). It also involves checks after the legal entity is set up to ensure information is up-to-date and to identify potential red flags. It proposes a verification process that is fully automated information technology system with human supervision with access to relevant data, held by national and foreign authorities for cross-checking and advanced analysis.

The process could be managed by the beneficial ownership or company register, or another public body that has experience with data analytics, such as financial intelligence units or tax authorities and the responsible body needs to be adequately resourced and empowered to conduct such checks.

Adapted from “Beneficial ownership verification: ensuring the truthfulness and accuracy of registered ownership information”, Tax Justice Network



By Munachi Ugochuku

Articles News


The Corruption Perception Index (CPI) has been published annually since 1995 by Transparency International.

Civil Society Legislative Advocacy (CISLAC), the National Chapter of TI in Nigeria, will be publishing the 2019 CPI on the 23rd of January, 2020.

The CPI scores countries from 100 (long term economic growth and GDP increase, very clean) to 0 (high perceived rate of corruption, highly corrupt) and ranks countries based on their public sector corruption analyzed by experts and opinions by the general public with the major aim of stopping bribery and every form of public corruption. Countries are ranked by position relative to other countries in the index.

Through the course of Nigeria’s corruption perception assessment since 2012, the country has averaged a score of 26.7 with its highest score at 28 in 2016 and lowest at 25 in 2013. Despite moving up four places from 148 in 2017 to 144 in 2018, there was no actual change in the scores for both years, which stood at 27. In the 2018 CPI, Nigeria scored 27 out of 100 points, maintaining the same score as in the 2017 CPI, indicating that Nigeria was still perceived as highly corrupt, and although the ranking showed that Nigeria moved up four (4) places, it only meant that four other countries scored worse while Nigeria stagnated.

The result also indicated a link between corruption and the health of democracies, where countries with higher rates of corruption also have weaker democratic institutions and political rights.
The CPI serves as an indicator for assessing President Buhari’s performance in fulfilling his 2015 anti-corruption flagship agenda.
It remains to be seen if Nigeria has improved or worsened.

It would be of immense benefit to public institutions, the government and Nigerian citizens as a whole, to look at the problems indicated on the CPI and follow the recommendations mapped out to ensure that corruption in the public sector is mitigated.

Articles News

What a difference two years makes: progress since the 2016 Anti-Corruption Summit


Each year governments make anti-corruption commitments at various international conferences and summits. Every summit is different, but afterwards we all grapple with the same problem: how to make sure commitments stick?

Two years ago, 43 governments made over 600 anti-corruption commitments at the 2016 Anti-Corruption Summit in London. At the time, Transparency International welcomed governments’ aspirations to undertake bigger and bolder reforms, but we were also keenly aware that the enthusiasm and political will for reform could quickly be lost.

In order to keep the pressure on countries to stick to their commitments, Transparency International UK launched the Anti-Corruption Pledge Tracker in September 2017. This innovative tool compiles in-country assessments by civil society, looking at how countries have delivered on the pledges made at the 2016 summit. The initial findings published last September were encouraging but showed that there was much more to be done.

This time we have narrowed our focus, allowing us to dive into the implementation of specific commitments. Whereas in 2017 we looked at 27 countries plus international organisations, this time we are tracking progress across 116 commitments by 16 countries in six areas: asset recovery, beneficial ownership transparency, law enforcement, open data, public procurement and protection for whistle-blowers or space for civil society.

Read More


NIGERIA COUNTRY CARD- Global Corruption Barometer Africa 2019: Citizen’s Views and Experiences of Corruption

The Global Corruption Barometer (GCB) – Africa, published by Transparency International in partnership with Afrobarometer, presents the largest, most detailed set of public opinion data on citizens’ views on corruption and direct experiences of bribery in Africa. Based on fieldwork conducted in 34 countries between 2016 and 2018 by Afrobarometer, as well as a survey conducted by Omega Research, the GCB incorporates the views of more than 47,000 citizens in 35 countries across Africa.



Text of the Executive Director of CISLAC at the Press Conference on Beneficial Ownership Register in Nigeria


1st of July, 2019:

Distinguished Ladies and Gentlemen, dear Colleagues,

We are gathered here to call on President Muhammadu Buhari to assent to the Companies and Allied Matters Act (CAMA) Repeal Bill that was passed by the 8th Assembly and is now before the  President. This legislative framework will provide a legal foundation for the implementation of  Beneficial Ownership disclosure. If signed into law by President Buhari, it will lead to the establishment of the electronic web-based open Beneficial Ownership register in Nigeria. The ultimate goal is the establishment of comprehensive database of REAL OWNERS behind the management of private companies operating within Nigerian jurisdiction. If CAMA Bill is not signed by President Buhari this week, a decade of work will be lost and irreparable diplomatic, economic and reputational damage inflicted on Nigeria.

We recall that President Buhari made commitments to strengthen anti-corruption reforms and join the Open Government Partnership (OGP) in May 2016 during the Anti-Corruption Summit in London in a bid to deepen institutional and policy reforms. One of the commitments in Nigeria’s Country Statement issued by President Buhari at the summit was that ‘Nigeria  is  committed  to  establishing  a  public  central  register  of  company   beneficial   ownership   information.’ Three years after this bold commitment and two years of implementation of OGP, there is still no Beneficial Ownership register.


While legitimate corporate businesses have an integral role in national development, the involvement of Politically Exposed Persons (PEPs)who conceal corruptly acquired wealth through the complex networks of companies deliberately created to hide their identities has further increased the risks they pose to non-fortified economies. The Siemens, Halliburton and Malabu oil scandals, to cite a few high-profile cases, had a net impact on revenue leakages that was unbearable for the country’s finances and the citizens’ economic well-being. Sadly, Nigeria is a global champion in the lack of transparency, shady deals and corporate scams, frequently involving elected politicians, public officials, individuals linked with the defence sector and other so called ‘elite.’

A simple signature on CAMA would have enormous benefits.

Beneficial ownership register will address Nigeria’s obligations towards

  1. Financial Action Task Force (FATF) whose efforts aim at promoting policies and standards that insulate global financial systems from acts of money laundering and the financing of terrorism and proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (Article 24 & 25).
  2. Nigeria’s obligation under the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC).
  3. The global Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI) implementation of the beneficial ownership standards in extractive sector before the 31st of December, 2019 deadline for Nigeria.

Above all, every Nigerian will profit as stolen public wealth will be exposed!

Permit me to outline that there are damning implications of not signing the law. In the absence of CAMA, we risk the suspension from the EITI initiative where Nigeria has always played an important global role and adjudged one of the best EITI countries. Furthermore, Nigeria is already under pressure from the United States, European Union and other important partners for weak compliance with anti-money laundering legislation, anti-terrorism financing and illicit financial flows. Sanctions will follow if rapid improvement is not achieved RIGHT NOW! In addition, President Buhari’s anti-corruption credentials will receive yet another blow if he fails to act on CAMA.


We have just missed a huge opportunity to leap forward in the fight against Nigeria’s stolen wealth. The failure to enact the Proceeds of Crime Act (POCA) has inexplicably jeopardised the asset recovery effort, which the Executive champions with great vigour.  Many international partners and domestic stakeholders have been horrified to observe the opportunity lost as hundreds of millions of US dollars are awaiting to be returned to Nigeria by the international community. Without POCA, there is no framework to do that in an accountable and transparent way.

I urge us to investigate who has sabotaged the signature of POCA, which has deprived Nigerians of perhaps billions of US dollars in returned assets from abroad and also within Nigeria.

In addition, we need to act on investigation and prosecution of cases where Beneficial Ownership has been disclosed and where concerned individuals have not been able to explain the source of their wealth. Panama papers revealed 110 Nigerians, many of them active politicians. Here we have Beneficial Ownership that has proven unexplained sources of wealth of mind-blowing proportions. How many of these individuals have been investigated, prosecuted and convicted, years after evidence has been provided?

Let us be crystal clear. Concealing of beneficial owners costs lives of our fellow countrymen as terrorists use international financial systems to sustain their operations. Without transparent ownership of Nigerian and international companies operating within the Nigerian jurisdiction, we will not be able to stop the bleeding from illicit financial outflows, which costs us annually around 15.7 billion US dollars, according to Global Financial Integrity Report.

As long as wrong incentives and dysfunctional supervision dominate our national financial systems, consequences in the form of terrorism financing, trans-national organized crime, tax evasion and illegal enrichment of politically exposed persons will prevail. CAMA and the Beneficial Ownership register is one of the indispensable mechanisms that has a potential to make a real difference.

We, therefore, call on the President to live up to the expectations of well-meaning Nigerians in fighting corruption by signing the CAMA Bill into law to give a boost to the commitment to fighting corruption and reassure Nigerians that the reason for which he was given this mandate in the first place in 2015 was for the fact that we believe that he will stay true to his words and curb corruption in Nigeria. If CAMA is not enacted, we need to investigate who is sabotaging the anti-corruption agenda!

God bless us all, God bless Nigeria!


  1. Civil Society Legislative Advocacy Centre (CISLAC)/Transparency International-Nigeria
  2. African Centre for Leadership and Strategic Development
  3. Zero Corruption Coalition (ZCC)
  4. CITAD
  5. SOTU-Nigeria
  6. National Procurement Watch Platform (NPWP)
  7. African Centre for Media & Information Literacy (AFRICMIL)
  8. Open Alliance
  9. BudgIT
  10. WRAPA
  11. Centre for Democracy and Development (CDD)


A High Court sitting in Kano has stopped the Kano State House of Assembly from probing the Kano State Governor on the allegation of receiving bribes for contracts. Commenting on the face-off between the Kano State Assembly, the courts and the state governor, a legal practitioner and chairman of the Presidential Advisory Committee (PACAC), Prof Itse Sagay (SAN), said the recent viral videos on the internet purportedly showing the Kano State Governor receiving kickbacks from contractors can be authenticated using Forensic Analysis.Itsey also said the KanoState House of Assembly has the capacity and is well equipped to carry out the investigations as regards the allegation on the State Governor.



Two former ministers in Mugabe’s cabinet appeared in court on corruption charges almost a year after the former president of Zimbabwe was ousted from power. Following the present government’s stance of cracking down on corruption, former Minister of Information, Communication and Technology SupaMandiwanzira is facing two graft charges involving $5M (4.4m Euros). The former Local Government, Youth and Environment Minister, Saviour Kasukuwere, is also charged with illegally parcelling out land worth $2m to former first lady Grace Mugabe’s sister. Mugabe’s son in-law, Simba Chikore, was also arraigned on kidnapping charge over an alleged detention of an airline official.

Since Mugabe’s fall, several of his allies have been arrested.



EFCC Zonal, Lagos office arraigned four suspects, including a retired police officer at the Special Offences Court in Ikeja on a 14 count charge bordering on fraud and stealing to the tune of N1, 301, 334, 108 only. The suspects have amongst them a retired officer of the police force ACP IfeomaOkpalugo and three (3) others who are charged alongside YUS Investment Nigeria Limited and Olivia Osmond Nigeria Limited for diverting the above amount of money belonging to the Nigeria Police Force (NPF) to their personal use.